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         *  *  *   Bhagavad  Gita   *  *  *        
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The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian epic poem. In the Gita, Arjuna, a great warrior, is faced with a difficult decision: whether or not to fight in a battle between his kinsmen. He is torn between his duty to fight alongside his brothers for a just cause, and his reluctance when he sees those he must fight against include his other relatives and mentors. Krishna takes the place of Arjuna's charioteer and offers Arjuna advice on how to deal with the situation. Included in this allegory are lessons on how to lead a moral life, which form the foundations of the spiritual practice of hinduism and yoga. Although we say that the Bhagavad Gita in an ancient yoga text, it has very little to do with the physical practice of yoga (asana). The Gita follows Arjuna's quest for spiritual guidance, and Krishna's answers to his questions on how to realize his inner spirituality and take responsibility for his life and role in the world.
 

There are three paths which lead directly to establishing a relationship with God. According to the authority of Bhagavad-Gita these paths have been designated as the yoga of perfect actions, the yoga of perfect devotion and the yoga of perfect knowledge. These three paths with great care and attention have been fully explained in the Bhagavad-Gita which comprises chapters 23 through 40 in the Bhishma-Parva section of Mahabharata.

 

The Bhagavad-Gita consists of 18 chapters. Each chapter is called a yoga. Yoga is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness. So each chapter is a highly specialized yoga revealing the path of attaining realization of the Ultimate Truth. The first six chapters have been classified as the Karma Yoga section as they mainly deal with the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions.

 

 
 
These chapters are :
 

 

Karma : Humble Servitude

 

  Chapter 1  : Visada Yoga - War & Survival
             Chapter 2  : Sankhya Yoga - Soul Immortalality
                 Chapter 3  : Karma Yoga - Human Being Servitude
Chapter 4  : Jnana Yoga - Ultimate Truth
                                    Chapter 5  : Karma Vairagya Yoga - Actions & Renunciations
     Chapter 6  : Abhyasa Yoga - Self Realization
 

Bhakti : Devotion of Divine Worship

 
                             Chapter 7  : Paramahamsa Vijnana Yoga - Knowledge Truth
                                       Chapter 8  : Aksara-Parabrahman Yoga - Attainment of Salvation
                                          Chapter 9  : Raja-Vidya-Guhya Yoga - True Confidential Knowledge
                         Chapter 10  : Vibhuti-Vistara-Yoga - Infinite Glories Truth
                                      Chapter 11  : Visvarupa-Darsana Yoga - Vision of Universal Form
Chapter 12  : Bhakti Yoga - Path of Devotion

 

Jnana : Self-Knowledge & Realization 

                 
                  Chapter 13  : Ksetra-Ksetrajna Vibhaga Yoga - Self Consciousness
           Chapter 14  : Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga -3 Qualities of Nature
Chapter 15  : Purusottama Yoga - Realization of Truth
                                Chapter 16  : Daivasura-Sampad-Vibhaga Yoga - Divine & Demonise Nature
                   Chapter 17  : Sraddhatraya-Vibhaga Yoga - 3 Divisions of Existence
    Chapter 18  : Moksa-Opadesa Yoga - Revelation of Truth
 

Lord Krishna spoke the Bhagavad-Gita on the battlefield of Kuruksetra in 3102 B.C. ; just prior to the commencement of the Mahabharata war. This date corresponds to 1700 years before Moses, 2500 years before Buddha, 3000 years before Jesus and 3800 years before Mohammed. So first and foremost it should be clearly understood that the eternal knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gita has not been influenced by Buddhism, Christianity, Hebrewism or Islam; for these religions did not exist at that time and were established later. That proof of the date 3102 B.C. can be verified by any knowledgeable indologist in India based on the fact that this was the year when the Pandava King Yudhisthira ascended the throne and was coronated as emperor of the Earth. Also according to the Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II, the Battle of Kuruksetra took place in 3102 B.C. with Lord Krishna reciting the Bhagavad-Gita before its commencement. As well precise information of the positions of the constellation at the commencement of the Battle of Kuruksetra have been given in the great historical epic Mahabharata itself, which is based on the 26,920 year astronomical cycle known as the precession of the equinoxes which is the time it takes our solar system to revolve around the central sun.

 

But who exactly is Lord Krishna? Is He Narayana? Is He Vishnu? Is He Vasudeva as referred to in the Taittirya Aranyaka 10.1. 6 ? In the Bhagavad-Gita the Supreme Lord Krishna is addressed by Arjuna with 41 different names. Some of these names are Acyuta, Bhagavan, Govinda, Hari, Isvara, Janardana, Kesava, Madhava, Purusottama and Yogesvara as well as Vasudeva and Vishnu. Although Lord Krishna possesses unlimited names due to His unlimited attributes and potencies it should be clearly understood that the Krishna who is so wonderfully presented in the Puranas is one and the same Krishna who spoke the Bhagavad-Gita and is so marvelously glorified in the Mahabharata. It should be understood that the Bhagavad-Gita is the very essence of Mahabharata. The Bhagavad-Gita literally translates as the Song of God! It was originally revealed in the classical language of Sanskrit spoken on the Indian sub-continent. It was first translated into English in 1785 by Charles Wilkins. It was translated into Latin in 1823 by Schlegel, into German in 1826 by Von Humbolt, into French in 1846 by Lassens and into Greek in 1848 by Galanos. By now it has been translated into all the major languages of the world such as Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Hebrew, Portugese, Arabic, Hindi and Bengali.

 

The Bhagavad Gita can be taken as a sacred text, an historical document or a philosophical musing, depending on the perspective you bring to it. Although not essential to the practice of asana yoga, the Gita is a wonderful companion, and the best place to start an exploration of the history and philosophy of yoga.

 

 

 

The Bhagavad Gītā(Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, IPA:[ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː], Song of God), also more simply known as Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, but is frequently treated as a freestanding text, and in particular, as an Upanishad in its own right, one of the several books that comprise the more general Vedic tradition. It is revealed scripture in the views of Hindus, the scripture for Hindus represents the words and message of god, the book is considered among the most important texts in the history of literature and philosophy. The teacher of the Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna, who is revered by Hindus as a manifestation of God (Parabrahman) Himself, and is referred to within as Bhagavan, the Divine One.

 

The context of the Gita is a conversation between Lord Krishna and the Pandava prince Arjuna taking place in the middle of the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra War with armies on both sides ready to battle. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins who command a tyranny imposed on a disputed empire, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince, and elaborates on different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies, and explains different ways in which the soul can reach the supreme being with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. During the discourse, Lord Krishna reveals His identity as the Supreme Being Himself (Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of His divine universal form.

 

The direct audience to Lord Krishna’s discourse of the Bhagavad Gita included Arjuna (addressee), Sanjaya (using Divya Drishti (or divine vision) gifted by the sage Veda Vyasa to watch the war and narrate the events to Dhritarashtra), spirit of Lord Hanuman (perched atop Arjuna’s chariot) in his flag and Barbarika, son of Ghatotkacha, who also witnessed the complete 18 days of action at Kurukshetra.

 

The Bhagavad Gita is also called Gītopaniṣad, implying its having the status of an Upanishad, i.e. a Vedantic scripture. Since the Gita is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is classified as a Smṛiti text. However, those branches of Hinduism that give it the status of an Upanishad also consider it a śruti or "revealed" text.[As it is taken to represent a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called "the Upanishad of the Upanishads". Another title is mokṣaśāstra, or "Scripture of Liberation".

 

  

    *   *   *   Date  and  Text   *   *   *    

 

The Bhagavad Gita occurs in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata and comprises 18 chapters from the 25th through 42nd and consists of 700 verses. Its authorship is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, the compiler of the Mahabharata. Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharataas chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40. According to the recension of the Gita commented on by Shankaracharya, the number of verses is 700, but there is evidence to show that old manuscripts had 745 verses. The verses themselves, using the range and style of Sanskrit meter (chhandas) with similes and metaphors, are written in a poetic form that is traditionally chanted.

 

As with all of the Mahabharata, the text of the Gītā cannot be dated with certainty. Some astrologers have calculated the Bhagavad Gita traditionally being revealed circa 3000 BCE based purely on Sri Krishna's horoscope. The entire epic went through a lengthy process of accumulation and redaction during roughly the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE. Some scholars have placed the composition of the Gītā in the earlier phase of this period, between roughly the 5th and the 2nd century BCE. The mainstream assumption of a pre-Christian date has been widely repeated, e.g. by Indian President Radhakrishnan. Recently it has been speculated to date around early centuries of the Common Era instead. Thius, John Brockington (1998) argues that the Gītā can be placed in the first century CE. Based on claims of differences in the poetic styles, some scholars like Jinarajadasa have argued that Bhagavad Gītā was added to Mahābhārata at a later date.

 

Within the text of the Bhagavad Gītā itself, Lord Krishna states that the knowledge of Yoga and self renunciation contained in the Gītā was first instructed to mankind at the very beginning of their existence. Therefore, the history and choronology of Bhagavad Gita may be taken to be clear from the text itself, by its adherents. Although it may seem to some that the original date of composition of the Bhagavad Gita is not clear, its teachings are considered timeless and the exact time of revelation of the scripture is considered of little spiritual significance by religiously-motivated scholars such as Bansi Pandit, and Juan Mascaro. Swami Vivekananda dismisses concerns about differences of opinion regarding the historical events as unimportant for study of the Gita from the point of acquirement of Dharma.

 

 

 

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18

The Bhagavad- Gita is considered by eastern and western scholars alike to be among the greatest spiritual books the world has ever known. In a very clear and wonderful way the Supreme Lord Krishna describes the science of self-realization and the exact process by which a human being can establish their eternal relationship with God. In terms of pure, spiritual knowledge the Bhagavad- Gita is incomparable. Its intrinsic beauty is that its knowledge applies to all human beings and does not postulate any sectarian idealogy or secular view. It is appproachable from the sanctified realms of all religions and is glorified as the epitome of allspiritual teachings. This is because proficiency in the Bhagavad- Gita reveals the eternal principles which are

fundamental and essential for spiritual life from all perspectives and allows one to perfectly understand the esoteric truths hidden within all religious scriptures. Many great thinkers from our times such as Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi and Albert Schweizer as well as Madhvacarya, Sankara and Ramanuja from bygone ages have all contemplated and deliberarted upon its timeless message. The primary purpose of Bhagavad- Gita is to illuminate for all of humanity the realization of the true nature of divinity; for the highest spiritual conception and greatest material perfection is to attain love of God !

 

 

 
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